Referring to cargo being put, or laden, onto a means of conveyance.
Charges that are applied to the base tariff rate or base contract rate, e.g., bunkers, container, currency, destination/delivery.
An act beyond human control, such as lightning, flood or earthquake.
A term from Latin meaning, “according to value.”
A notice sent to a local or foreign buyer advising that shipment has gone forward and containing details of packing, routing, etc. A copy of the invoice is often enclosed and, if desired, a copy of the bill of lading.
A bank operating in the seller’s country, that handles letters of credit in behalf of a foreign bank.
The forwarding agreement or carrying agreement between shipper and air carrier and is issued only in nonnegotiable form.
The total price to move cargo from origin to destination, inclusive of all charges.
A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods delivered “alongside” are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship’s tackle so that they can be loaded.
A notification by carrier of ship’s arrival to the consignee.
A term commonly used in connection with a bill of lading. It involves the transfer of rights, title and interest in order to assign goods by endorsing the bill of lading.
Abbreviation for “Bunker Adjustment Factor.” Used to compensate steamship lines for fluctuating fuel costs. Sometimes called “Fuel Adjustment Factor” or FAF.
Guarantee issued by a bank to a carrier to be used in lieu of lost or misplaced original negotiable bill of lading.
A tariff term referring to ocean rate less accessorial charges, or simply the base tariff rate.
A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company. It serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage and a receipt for goods.
Port where cargo is discharged from means of transport.
The weight shown in a waybill and freight bill, i.e, the invoiced weight.
To gain access to a vessel.
A warehouse authorized by Customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
Arrangements with a carrier for the acceptance and carriage of freight; i.e., a space reservation.
Reservation number used to secure equipment and act as a control number prior to completion of a B/L.
Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship without mark and count.” Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight.
A container with a discharge hatch in the front wall; allows bulk commodities to be carried.
An extra charge sometimes added to steamship freight rates; justified by higher fuel costs. (Also known as Fuel Adjustment Factor or FAF.)
A Maritime term referring to Fuel used aboard the ship. Coal stowage areas aboard a vessel in the past were in bins or bunkers.
Abbreviation for “Currency Adjustment Factor.” A charge, expressed as a percentage of a base rate that is applied to compensate ocean carriers of currency fluctuations.
A manifest that lists all cargo carried on a specific vessel voyage.
Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.
Usually refers to intracity hauling on drays or trucks.
Abbreviation for “Cubic Meter.”
A certified document showing the origin of goods; used in international commerce.
Abbreviation for “Container Freight Station.” A shipping dock where cargo is loaded (“stuffed”) into or unloaded (“stripped”) from containers. Generally, this involves less than containerload shipments, although small shipments destined to same consignee are often consolidated. Container reloading from/to rail or motor carrier equipment is a typical activity.
A frame with wheels and container locking devices in order to secure the container for movement.
Abbreviation for “Cost and Insurance.” A price that includes the cost of the goods, the marine insurance and all transportation charges except the ocean freight to the named point of destination.
Abbreviation for “Cost, Insurance, Freight.” (Named Port) Same as C&F or CFR except seller also provides insurance to named destination.
A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were received in “apparent good order and condition,” without damage or other irregularities. If no notation or exception is made, the B/L is assumed to be “cleaned.”
Represents a complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer with regard to the goods sold. Also reports the content of the shipment and serves as the basis for all other documents about the shipment.
Article shipped. For dangerous and hazardous cargo,the correct commodity identification is critical.
A transportation company which provides service to the general public at published rates.
A carrier which has a direct physical connection with, or forms a link between two or more carriers.
A person or company to whom commodities are shipped.
A symbol placed on packages for identification purposes; generally a triangle,square, circle, etc. with letters and/or numbers and port of discharge.
A person or company shown on the bill of lading as the shipper.
Cargo containing shipments of two or more shippers or suppliers. Containerload shipments may be consolidated for one or more consignees.
A person or firm performing aconsolidation service for others. The consolidator takes advantage of lower full carload(FCL) rates, and savings are passed on to shippers.
A truck trailer body that can be detached from the chassis for loading into a vessel, a rail car or stacked in a container depot. Containers may be ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, flat rack, vehicle rack,open top, bulk liquid or equipped with interior devices. A container may be 20 feet, 40 feet, 45 feet, 48 feet or 53 feet in length, 8’0″ or 8’6″ in width, and 8’6″ or 9’6″ in height.
Document showing contents and loading sequence of a container.
An area designated for the stowage of cargoes in container; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation.Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed.
A materialshandling/storage facility used for completely unitized loads in containers and/or empty containers. Commonly referred to as CY.
Cargo that will fit into a container and result in an economical shipment.
Stowage of general or special cargoes in a container for transport in the various modes.
Cost of goods, marine insurance and all transportation (freight) charges are paid to the foreign point of delivery by the seller.
Government agency charged with enforcing the rules passed to protect the country’s import and export revenues.
A warehouse authorized by Customs to receive duty-free merchandise.
All countries require that the importer make a declaration on incoming foreign goods. The importer then normally pays a duty on the imported merchandise. The importer’s statement is compared against the carrier’s vessel manifest to ensure that all foreign goods are properly declared.
The latest time cargo may be delivered to a terminal for loading to a scheduled train or ship.
Abbreviation for “Dangerous and Hazardous” cargo.
Abbreviation for “Destination Delivery Charge.” A charge, based on container size, that is applied in many tariffs to cargo. This charge is considered accessorial and is added to the base ocean freight.This charge covers crane lifts off the vessel, drayage of the container within the terminal and gate fees at the terminal operation.
Place where loose or other non-containerized cargo is ungrouped for delivery.
Order to pick up goods at a named place and deliver them to a pier. Usually issued by exporter to trucker but may apply to a railroad, which completes delivery by land. Use is limited to a few major U.S. ports. Also known as shipping delivery order.
A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying the carrier’s equipment beyond the allowed free time. The ree time and demurrage charges are set forth in the charter party or freight tariff.
Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off.
A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying carrier’s equipment beyond allowed time. Demurrage applies to cargo; detention applies to equipment. See Per Diem.
The unloading of a container or cargo van.
A form used to acknowledge receipt of cargo and often serves as basis for preparation of the ocean bill of lading.
Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor to consignee. Also known as House to House. Not necessarily a through rate.
Cargo that is not liquid and normally does not require temperature control.
Attempting to import merchandise into a country at a price less than the fair market value, usually through subsidy by exporting country.
A government document declaring designated goods to be shipped out of the country.
A rate published on traffic moving from an interior point to a port for transshipment to a foreign country.
Abbreviation for “Freight All Kinds.” Usually refers to full container loads of mixed shipments.
Abbreviation for “Free Alongside Ship.”
Abbreviation for “Full Container Load.”
Cargo to/from regional ports are transferred to/from a central hub port for a long-haul ocean voyage.
A container with no sides and frame members at the front and rear. Container can be loaded from the sides and top.
The title of a common clause in contracts, exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations as a result of conditions beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods or war.
The seller must deliver the goods to a pier and place them within reach of the ship’s loading equipment. See Terms of Sale.
Shipped under a rate that includes costs of delivery to and the loading onto a carrier at a specified point.
A port designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods.Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re-exported without duties.
Refers to either the cargo carried or the charges assessed for carriage of the cargo.
A person whose business is to act as an agent on behalf of the shipper. A freight forwarder frequently makes the booking reservation.
Abbreviation for “General Rate Increase.” Used to describe an across-the-board tariff rate increase implemented by conference members and applied to base rates.
A consolidation service, putting small shipments into containers for shipment.
An international goods classification system for describing cargo in international trade under a single commodity-coding scheme.
An industry abbreviation for “Hazardous Material.”
The process of connecting a moving rail car with a motionless rail car within a rail classification yard in order to make up a train. The cars move by gravity from an incline or “hump” onto the appropriate track.
To receive goods from a foreign country.
The recognized abbreviation for the International Chamber of Commerce Terms of Sale.These terms were last amended, effective July 1, 1990.
Placing a port on a vessel’s itinerary because the volume of cargo offered at that port justifies the cost of routing the vessel.
A transportation line that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points.
This type of clause covers merchandise if the damage amounts to three percent or more of the insured value of the package or cargo. If the vessel burns, sinks, collides, or sinks, all losses are fully covered. In marine insurance, the word average describes partial damage or partial loss.
This type of insurance offers the shipper the broadest coverage available, covering against all losses that may occur in transit.
In water transportation, the deliberate sacrifice of cargo to make the vessel safe for the remaining cargo. Those sharing in the spared cargo proportionately cover the loss.
A Marine insurance term to refer to partial loss on an individual shipment from one of the perils insured against, regardless of the balance of the cargo. Particularaverage insurance can usually be obtained, but the loss must be in excess of a certain percentage of the insured value of the shipment, usually three to five percent, before a claim will be allowed by the company.
Used to denote movements of cargo containers interchangeably between transport modes,i.e., motor, water, and air carriers, and where the equipment is compatible within the multiple systems.
Letter of credit in which the specified payment is guaranteed by the bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee and which cannot be revoked without joint agreement of both the buyer and the seller.
Bank that opens a straight or negotiable letter of credit and assumes the obligation to pay the bank or beneficiary if the documents presented are in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit.
Loaded aboard a vessel.
Abbreviation for “Less than Container Load.” The quantity of freight which is less than that required for the application of a container load rate. Loose Freight.
In order to obtain the clean bill of lading, the shipper signs a letter of indemnity to the carrier on the basis of which may be obtained the clean bill of lading, although the dock or mate’s receipt showed that the shipment was damaged or in bad condition.
Document that lists in detail all the bills of lading issued by a carrier or its agent or master for a specific voyage. A detailed summary of the total cargo of a vessel. Used principally for Customs purposes.
Letters, numbers, and other symbols placed on cargo packages to facilitate identification. Also known as marks.
Cargo which has been booked but does not arrive in time to be loaded before the vessel sails.
A contract for transportation between a shipper and a carrier. It also evidences receipt of the cargo by the carrier. A bill of lading shows ownership of the cargo and, if made negotiable, can be bought, sold or traded while the goods are in-transit.
A notation on a bill of lading that cargo has been loaded on board a vessel. Used to satisfy the requirements of a letter of credit, in the absence of an express requirement to the contrary.
A container fitted with a solid removable roof, or with a tarpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top.
Location where shipment begins its movement.
A document which requires proper signatures for consummating carriage of contract. Must be marked as “original” by the issuing carrier.
Cargo more than eight feet high which thus cannot fit into a standard container.
Itemized list of commodities with marks/numbers but no cost values indicated.
Under letters of credit, one or more shipments are allowed by the phrase “partial shipments permitted.”
Place where cargo leaves the care and custody of carrier.
Location where cargo enters the care and custody of carrier.
Port where a ship discharges or receives traffic.
A process employed in the shipment of citrus fruits and other perishable commodities.The fruit is packed and placed in a cold room from which the heat is gradually extracted.The boxes of fruit are packed in containers that have been thoroughly cooled and transported through to destination without opening the doors.
A ton on which the shipment is freighted. If cargo is rated as weight or measure (W/M),whichever produces the highest revenue will be considered the revenue ton. Weights are based on metric tons and measures are based on cubic meters. RT=1 MT or 1 CBM.
A charge for delaying a steamer beyond a stipulated period.
The tender of one lot of cargo at one time from one shipper to one consignee on one bill of lading.
The person or company who is usually the supplier or owner of commodities shipped. Also called Consignor.
Shipper’s communication(s) to its agent and/or directly to the international water-carrier. Instructions may be varied, e.g., specific details/clauses to be printed on the B/L, directions for cargo pickup and delivery.
Shipments loaded and sealed by shippers and not checked or verified by the carriers.
Shipper’s instructions to carrier for forwarding goods; usually the triplicate copy of the bill of lading.
A complete package of pick up or delivery services performed by a carrier from origin to final consumption point.
Said to contain.
A non-negotiable bill of lading which states a specific identity to whom the goods should be delivered. See Bill of Lading.
Putting cargo into a container.
To put in place of another; i.e.,when an insurance company pays a claim it is placed in the same position as the payee with regard to any rights against others.
The point at which sellers have fulfilled their obligations so the goods in a legal sense could be said to have been delivered to the buyer. They are shorthand expressions that set out the rights and obligations of each party when it comes to transporting the goods.
In water transportation, the time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure.
Insurance coverage for loss of goods resulting from any act of war.
A document prepared by a transportation line at the point of a shipment; shows the point of the origin, destination, route, consignor, consignee, description of shipment and amount charged for the transportation service. It is forwarded with the shipment or sent by mail to the agent at the transfer point or waybill destination.Abbreviation is WB. Unlike a bill of lading, a waybill is NOT a document of title.
A cargo on which the transportation charge is assessed on the basis of weight.
Abbreviation for “Weight or Measurement;” the basis for assessing freight charges.